"What used to be a $70 million per year market in stimulant drugs has rapidly ballooned to $7 billion per year under the pressure of aggressive and misleading drug company marketing to doctors, parents, teachers, and patients."
by Jonathan Wolfe, Psychiatric News, October 21, 2011 "ADHD diagnoses are on the rise in the United States, with new research showing prevalence increases for both boys and girls, as well as the majority of racial/ethnic groups for which data were collected. Nine percent of U.S. children aged 5 to 17 were diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from 2007 to 2009, an increase of more than 2 percent from the number of such diagnoses reported from 1998 to 2000. Read more.
by Leslie Sinclair, Psychiatric News, October 21, 2011: The percentage of children aged 4 to 17 who had ever received an ADHD diagnosis increased by about 22 percent from 2003 to 2007, and about two-thirds of them were receiving pharmacological treatment. Pediatric stimulant use has been slowly but steadily increasing since 1996, primarily as a result of greater use among adolescents. Read more.
Attention deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Aged 5-17 Years in the United States, 1998-2009 Akinbami L, et al, NCHS Data Brief, No. 70, August 2011
"The percentage of children ever diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) increased from 7% to 9% from 1998–2000 through 2007–2009."
Increased Parkinson's risk from meth/amphetamine study: Signiﬁcant and enduring dopamine toxicity caused by meth/amphetamine might only become clinically evident in susceptible users who have advanced to middle or older age—
Full Adderall label as of 8/2011 -- very hard to find on internet
"Adolescent amphetamine use linked to permanent changes in brain function and behavior" Science News November 2011
Patients’ Brains May Adapt to ADHD Medication NeuroscienceNews.com
New research reveals how the brain appears to adapt to compensate for the effects of long-term ADHD medication, suggesting why ADHD medication is more effective short-term than it is long-term. The study, from the Institute of Psychiatry (IoP) at King’s College London is published today in the American Journal of Psychiatry.
Dr Paolo Fusar-Poli and Professor Katya Rubia at the IoP at King’s led the research. Prof Rubia says: ‘There is currently no evidence for the long-term effectiveness of stimulant medication. In fact, there is evidence that the effect of medication diminishes over time and we know from clinicians that medication doses often need to be increased over time to be as effective as they were initially. Our findings could help explain why stimulants work very well in the short term but not so well long-term.’
"Development of Cortical Surface Area and Gyrification in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder" Philip Shaw, et al, Biological Psychiatry, July 2012 ADHD Brains Develop More Slowly -- Drug Effect?
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